Category: Space


#OSIRISREx

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8j A1 Q1 Solar Panels

A1Q1

Today’s your chance to ask us, the OSIRIS-REx team, your #asteroid sample return mission
questions using #askNASA!

@OSIRISREx #asteroid BennuSampleReturn #askNASA Why does #MAVEN #OSIRISREx &
#JupiterExoliner have the same bus but different Solar Panels?

.@TierraUniversu #Maven is at Mars, which is further from the sun than OSIRIS-REx at
#Bennu, it needs larger solar panels for req’d power.

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8k A2 Q2 Lifespan

A2Q2

Time to #AskNASA! MT @OSIRISREx: learn about the #asteroid sample return mission! 4:30 p.m.
ET, March 20.

@LockheedMartin #asteroid #askNASA What are the Lifespan of @MAVEN2Mars @OSIRISREx & the
#JupiterExoliner and how far can they go?

.@TierraUniversu For OSIRIS-REx, our design lifetime is 7 years. We will travel over 6
billion km roundtrip.

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8l A3 Q2 Lifespan
A3Q3

@TierraUniversu @OSIRISREx: #MAVEN has enough fuel to orbit #Mars for another 9 years,
depending on use as a comm. relay vs. science orbit.

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8m A4 Q3 Orbit

A4Q3

LIVE NOW! All about @OSIRISREx asteroid sample return mission. #AskNASA for your questions!
http://www.asteroidmission.org

@NASAGoddard #asteroid #askNASA What will be the accuracy of orbit characterization using
@OSIRISREx data in comparison to existing data?

.@TierraUniversu We will understand the orbit 100x better than we do currently.
http://bit.ly/1BEXSgc

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8n A5 Q4 Team
A5Q4

We are part of the team from the OSIRIS-REx mission, the first U.S. #asteroid sample return
mission! #askNASA

@OSIRISREx #askNASA How many are you all working on the #asteroid Bennu Sample Return
Mission?

.@TierraUniversu Approx. 450 people are working on this mission around the world.

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8o Q5 3Years

Q5

Our spacecraft launches next September on a seven year mission to bring back a sample of
asteroid #Bennu. #askNASA

@OSIRISREx #asteroid #skNASA What would have been needed to speed up Mission to as low as 3
to 4 years?

Lockheed Martin 032115 OSIRIS RExz8p Q6 Accomplishments

Q6

We’re now less than 18 months away from launch and this month, we start assembling our
spacecraft! #askNASA

@OSIRISREx #asteroid #askNASA What is the current percentage of accomplishment for all
components and Instruments? Ahead or with Slippage?

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Auroras

IAMA 032015 TA 1LM 2DA 3DG AB EC 4AS 5MM GBc Liz MacDonald A1 Q1 Climate

http://www.reddit.com/r/science/comments/2zkqh6/science_ama_series_im_dr_liz_macdonald_a_space/cpk0nrr?context=3
[–]Universu 2 points 10 hours ago
Are there changes in the appearance of Auroras in relation to climate change?

[–]Dr_Liz_MacDonald[F,S] 2 points 9 hours ago
Interesting question. The aurora occurs very high up in the atmosphere, basically on the edge of space.
Weather and climate effects tend to occur much lower. So there’s nothing I can think of that would
affect the look of auroras.

[–]Dr_Liz_MacDonald[F,S] 2 points 8 hours ago
Weather occurs less than 10 miles up, and aurora more than 60 miles up!

IAMA 032015 TA 1LM 2DA 3DG AB EC 4AS 5MM GBd Liz MacDonald A2 Q2 MAVEN

http://www.reddit.com/r/science/comments/2zkqh6/science_ama_series_im_dr_liz_macdonald_a_space/cpk4adc?context=3
[–]Universu 2 points 8 hours ago
As reported today MAVEN saw a Martian Aurora, how are Earth’s Auroras different or similar to other
planet’s auroras?

[–]Dr_Liz_MacDonald[F,S] 2 points 8 hours ago
Great question. Several other planets have magnetic fields and atmospheres, thus they have aurora. One
of the members of the Aurorasaurus Scientist Network (a great group of volunteers) wrote a blog post
about this a few months ago. Check it out: http://blog.aurorasaurus.org/blog/are-there-auroras-on-
other-planets/

[–]Dr_Liz_MacDonald[F,S] 2 points 8 hours ago
Scientists can compare the aurora seen on other planets to try to learn more about Earth and vice
versa. This helps to test our understanding of the plasma physics at work all around our magnetosphere.
Aurora on Earth has characteristic colors and occurs over a specific range of height due to the density
and species with our upper atmosphere. The magnetic field strength and orientation with respect to the
spin plane also varies significantly at other planets.

Join us for our Reddit AMA today! We answer Q’s 1-3pm EDT! Ask us abt #aurora, recent geomagnetic
storm, or anything! http://tinyurl.com/ob6aa2n

#aurora & #spaceweather @reddit_AMA w/@TweetAurora & @spaceliz 1-3pmET #MagRecon #AuroraSaurus
http://bit.ly/1BSMIba

Memories

IAMA 032015 TA 1LM 2DA 3DG AB EC 4AS 5MM GB
http://www.reddit.com/r/science/comments/2z82b0/science_ama_series_im_tom_albright_i_am_the/cpghzny?context=3

[–]Universu 2 points 3 days ago
Is there possibility of making a backup or a copy of the human memory?

[–]Prof_Tom_AlbrightProfessor and Director|Vision Center Lab| Salk Institute[F,S] 8 points 3 days ago
Yes. This is called a memoir. Write it down.

AsapScience

IAMA 032015 TA 1LM 2DA 3DG AB EC 4AS 5MM GBz3h AsapScience

http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2zm6nx/we_are_asapscience_full_time_youtubers_and_the/cpk77dz?context=3

[–]Universu 10 points 8 hours ago
What are your favorite books?

[–]asapscience[F,S] 13 points 8 hours ago
Mitch – 1984. Harry Potter was also a massive guilty pleasure I only started reading as an adult. Got
through them all in a few months, which was easily the most I’ve ever read in my life! Greg – A Fine
Balance Jess – Too many to choose from! However, she does run our AsapSCIENCE Book Club if you’re
interested in joining!

[–]noitingocatem 3 points 7 hours ago
Greg- A Fine Balance
Are you talking about the one by Rohinton Mistry? If so, that book is soo good. Gosh I might’ve cried
after finishing it.

[–]asapscience[F,S] 5 points 7 hours ago
That’s the one! -Greg

[–]noitingocatem 1 point 7 hours ago
I read it for a creative project last year (I got to pick my own book to read) and for the project I
made a house of cards because of the constant theme that society wants peace and constantly wants to be
organized, but only because the higher ups don’t want to deal with the poorer masses, and that its hard
to move up in a society designed to make the rich richer and not help the poor.

Hey friends! Join us for our reddit AMA live right now! http://redd.it/2zm6nx


Could We Actually Live On Mars?

The @AsapSCIENCE guys – @Whalewatchmeplz + @mitchellmoffit are here in the studio:
Books

IAMA 032015 TA 1LM 2DA 3DG AB EC 4AS 5MM GBp Danny Jacobs A1 Q1 Books

http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2zlpx0/we_are_actor_and_director_danny_jacobs_and/cpk2lks?context=3
[–]Universu 2 points 9 hours ago
What are your favorite books?

[–]DarrenDannyDANNY JACOBS AND DARREN GRODSKY[F,S] 3 points 9 hours ago
DANNY: My favorite book of all time is THE GREAT GATSBY. Every word in that is exquisitely chosen. The
plot leaves something to be desired, I think, but the language… I always get turned on by wonderful
use of language. That’s why I’m such a big Paul Simon and Bob Dylan fan.
DARREN: My favorite books of late all seem to be historical non-fiction, for some reason. Books like
David McCullough’s JOHN ADAMS, and I’m just now getting into the Robert Caro Lyndon Johnson books…

[–]Adam_BrodyADAM BRODY[F] 2 points 9 hours ago
Slaughterhouse 5 is an old favorite.

Join us -our @GrowingUpAOL ama is live! http://redd.it/2zlpx0

Growing Up and Other Lies Official Trailer #1 (2015) – Adam Brody, Wyatt Cenac Movie HD

Books

IAMA 032015 TA 1LM 2DA 3DG AB EC 4AS 5MM GBz2r Eva Chen A1 Q1 Book

http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2zlxn9/oh_hi_im_eva_chen_editor_in_chief_of_lucky_ask_me/cpk4hec?context=3
[–]Universu 2 points 9 hours ago
What is your favorite book?

[–]evachen212[F,S] 3 points 9 hours ago
Too many to name but the Age of Innocence is so poetic and has stuck to me years after reading it in
school… and Hunger Games and Harry Potter 🙂

My @reddit_AMA session is now LIVE! Ask me anything at http://redd.it/2zlxn9

IAMA 031215 TB TTa A1 Q1 Book

http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yqafj/i_am_tory_bruno_president_and_ceo_of_united/cpbzsus?context=3

–]Universu 2 points 41 minutes ago
What is you favorite book?

[–]ToryBruno[F,S] 6 points 27 minutes ago
Once and Future King

.@torybruno is ready to roll for his @reddit_AMA! He’ll start answering questions at 7PM EST. Join us!
http://redd.it/2yqafj

Thx to all who joined! MT @torybruno: Finished my 1st AMA.Great questions. Would have loved to stay
longer, but I’m heading over to the pad

Looking forward to my @reddit_AMA at 7pm EDT

apparently my AMA is so popular, it crashed Reddit 😉 I’ll be here when it comes back up

Back on reddit

Finished my first AMA. Great questions. Would have loved to stay longer, but I’m heading over to the
pad

I am Tory Bruno, President and CEO of United Launch Alliance. AMA! http://tinyurl.com/kdnyvo6

IAMA 031215 TB TTk TT A1 Q1 Book
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yp1r6/i_am_tiffani_thiessen_lets_get_cooking_ama/cpbl4te?context=3

[–]Universu 7 points 7 hours ago
What is your favorite book?

[–]TiffaniThiessen[F,S] 16 points 7 hours ago
Well, it’s funny, I’m not a traditional book person. My husband reads a ton of books. So we have a
plethora of books. But the books that I read are cookbooks, or books that I’m reading out loud to my
daughter.

IAMA 031215 TB TTl TT A2 Q2 Chef
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yp1r6/i_am_tiffani_thiessen_lets_get_cooking_ama/cpblvt2?context=3

[–]Universu 4 points 7 hours ago
Iron Chef, Master Chef, Top Chef and who’s your favorite chef?

[–]TiffaniThiessen[F,S] 8 points 6 hours ago
OOOOH.
That’s hard. I would probably have to say, it’s a toss between – that’s so hard, I watch all 3 of ’em!
Oooooh.
I watch more TOP CHEF and MASTER CHEF. So it’s probably a toss-up between those 2.

join me now on http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yp1r6/i_am_tiffani_thiessen_lets_get_cooking_ama/
… Ask me anything you want. Go ahead, ask away.

Come ask me questions live now on
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yp1r6/i_am_tiffani_thiessen_lets_get_cooking_ama/

Thanks for having me
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yp1r6/i_am_tiffani_thiessen_lets_get_cooking_ama/

Join @TiffaniThiessen for her AMA live now:
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2yp1r6/i_am_tiffani_thiessen_lets_get_cooking_ama/

NASA 030915 1stWomanMoonMarsE

#HappyInternationalWomensDay @AstroKarenN, @Astro_Nicole, @Astro_Cady, @Astro_Suni and all our women
astronauts!

@NASA_Astronauts @AstroKarenN @Astro_Nicole @Astro_Cady @Astro_Suni We want to see the
#FirstWomanOnTheMoonAndMars in the nearest future:)

#NASADawnAtCeres

NASA 030615 Dawn at Ceresk

@NASA_Dawn @NASA @NASAJPL Congratulations! More Success & Discoveries Ahead:) #DawnAtCeres
https://twitter.com/NASA_Dawn/status/573854798119747584

Went into orbit at #Ceres at 4:39 a.m. PST today. Read all about it: http://1.usa.gov/1Em0iHn Recent
image:

.@NASA_Dawn is in orbit at #Ceres—1st spacecraft arrival at a dwarf planet http://1.usa.gov/1ETDM82

Confirmed: I am in orbit around #Ceres
http://1.usa.gov/1A3NAXu

This morning, our @NASA_Dawn mission arrives at the dwarf planet #Ceres: http://go.nasa.gov/1M9v6u9

SpaceX 030215 EutelsatLaunchz5u

Congratulations!

IAMA 022815 NNg A2 Q2 Space Internet
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2xdsdw/the_internet_is_safe_we_are_a_group_of_a_few_net/coz9sgs

[–]Universu 1 point an hour ago
How will NetNeutrality affect the future of OneWeb and the SpaceXGoogle space internet?

[–]PublicKnowledgeDC[F,S] 4 points an hour ago
to the extent that either will qualify as US broadband access service providers (and I’m not sure
either one would), they would be prevented from discriminating just like any other ISP. However, this
is where that “reasonable network management” stuff becomes important. It could be that these
services could impose restrictions on users that other ISPs could not, if those restrictions were
really tied to technological limitations of their network.
-weinberg

IAMA 022815 NNh A1 A4 Q1 Brightline
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2xdsdw/the_internet_is_safe_we_are_a_group_of_a_few_net/coz82vd?context=3

[–]Universu 2 points an hour ago
It is good news to have the “Bright Line Rules” but how do we get protected further from the “dark
lines”?

[–]PublicKnowledgeDC[F,S] 4 points an hour ago
Neutrogena? -Chris/PK

[–]PublicKnowledgeDC[F,S] 4 points 45 minutes ago
You must resist the “dark lines” – PK/Brynne

IAMA 022815 NNi A3 Q3 Other Countries
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2xdsdw/the_internet_is_safe_we_are_a_group_of_a_few_net/coza9pc?context=3

[–]Universu 1 point 45 minutes ago
How is the status of Net Neutrality in other countries?

[–]PublicKnowledgeDC[F,S] 4 points 39 minutes ago
It varies greatly country by country. In hearings and discussions, the EU was often used as the
example however the set up there is not perfect. Further, within the EU there are differences and
some work better then others. PK/Brynne

We are know live & ready to answer your questions! Join us to talk about #netneutrality
http://bit.ly/1Aiifzd

This AMA is on fire! Join in and ask your questions now!
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2xdsdw/the_internet_is_safe_we_are_a_group_of_a_few_net/
#NetNeutrality #reddit #OpenInternet

IAMA 022715 AG LZm LZ A2 Q4 SOCERS
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x9edp/iam_lee_zlotoff_creator_of_macgyver_and_here_to/coy347h?context=3

[–]Universu 3 points 3 hours ago
Would iWoman as in -intelligentWoman and ironWoman- an Astronaut, Professor, Rocket Scientist with a
Doctoral in Aerospace Engineering and whose primary mission is to build a Spherical Orbital Crewed
Exploration Research Stations (SOCERS) orbiting the Moon and Mars, merit a TVSeries?

[–]Lee_Zlotoff[F,S] 6 points 3 hours ago
Sounds good to me! Enter the contest with it and then we’ll all see if that’s the kind of winning
concept we’re looking for. I won’t be judging all the initial entries myself, there’ll be three teams
of folks to do that: H’wood types, engineers, and TV and film academics. Once they’ve chosen the top
12, then I’ll help winnow those lists down to the final twelve contestants and, then work with the
other judges to pick the final five.

IAMA 022715 AG LZn LZ A1 Q1 Bookhttp://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x9edp/iam_lee_zlotoff_creator_of_macgyver_and_here_to/coy2v3a?context=3
[–]Universu 3 points 4 hours ago
What is your favorite book?

[–]Lee_Zlotoff[F,S] 5 points 3 hours ago
This is another impossible question to answer. After attending St. John’s college in Annapolis MD.,
where you read and discuss the great books of the western world for all four years, I discovered so
many works that changed my way of thinking, that I came to realize my favorite book could be the next
one that I read! So trying to limit that love of books to one or two was really not a good use of my
mind.

IAMA 022715 AG LZo LZ A3 Q5 Actress
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x9edp/iam_lee_zlotoff_creator_of_macgyver_and_here_to/coy61v1?context=3

[–]Universu 4 points 2 hours ago
Who would be the actress to play Ms. MacGyver if you will be continuing the series today?

[–]Lee_Zlotoff[F,S] 4 points 2 hours ago
Hard to say. Who would you like to see?

[–]hysilvinia 2 points 2 hours ago
Amanda Tapping 🙂

Join us now for @reddit_AMA w/ #MacGyver creator & #NextMacGyver partner Lee Zlotoff!
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x9edp/iam_lee_zlotoff_creator_of_macgyver_and_here_to/

IAMA 022715 AG LZc AG A1 Q1 Book

http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x8yto/adrian_grenier_actor_filmmaker_friend_of/coxzhwi?context=3

[–]Universu 2 points 5 hours ago
What is your favorite book?

[–]adriangrenierAMA[F,S] 3 points 4 hours ago
White noise by delillo

Come at me 🐳🐋💃🐋🐳“@reddit_AMA: Join @adriangrenier of @lonelywhale for his AMA live now:
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x8yto/adrian_grenier_actor_filmmaker_friend_of/ …”

Join @adriangrenier of @lonelywhale for his AMA live now:
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x8yto/adrian_grenier_actor_filmmaker_friend_of/

Doing a #redditama NOW! @reddit http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x8yto/adrian_grenier_actor_filmmaker_friend_of/

A post shared by Adrian Grenier (@adriangrenier) on

Doing a #redditama NOW! @reddit
http://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/2x8yto/adrian_grenier_actor_filmmaker_friend_of/

(https://twitter.com/adriangrenier/status/570626204279185409)
Shaping up for my @reddit_AMA tomorrow 2/26 at 12:00 EST. Come egg me on.

Shaping up for my @reddit_AMA tomorrow 2/26 at 12:00 EST. Come egg me on.

A post shared by Adrian Grenier (@adriangrenier) on

Shaping up for my @reddit_AMA tomorrow 2/26 at 12:00 EST. Come egg me on.

IAMA 022615 NL PSc PS A1A2A3 Q1 Europa TitanIAMA 022615 NL PSd PS A1A2A3 Q1 Europa Titan

http://www.reddit.com/r/space/comments/2x53ml/we_are_the_space_policy_and_advocacy_group_at_the/cowypzn?context=3#cowypzn

[–]Universu 2 points 4 hours ago
Can humans live in Europa or Titan? What habitat would be needed to live there?

[–]BillAdkinsBill Adkins – The Planetary Society[F] 3 points 4 hours ago
Both Europa and Titan would be pretty inhospitable places to visit, much less stay to live. Issues
that would need to be addressed include intense radiation environment, extremely cold temperature,
lack of a source of energy, food, air, etc. Europa may have heat and water below the ice surface, but
getting through the ice would likely be a significant technical challenge. Titan is mostly methane
and ethane atmosphere, so that’d be pretty nasty. At this point, it’s technologically beyond what can
be done…and may remain that way for a long time.

[–]elakdawallaEmily Lakdawalla – The Planetary Society[F] 4 points 4 hours ago
Human exploration of Titan won’t happen anytime soon, but it’s fun to imagine. You could fly on Titan
by flapping your arms with the help of some very small wings, thanks to the dense atmosphere and low
gravity. Here’s one brain-bending thing about human exploration of Titan: like Earth, its atmosphere
is mostly nitrogen. But the next most common gas on Titan is methane, whereas on Earth it’s oxygen.
Human astronauts need oxygen to breathe, and they also need fuel to make machines move. On Earth, we
combust hydrocarbon fuel with the help of an oxygen atmosphere. On Titan, the oxygen that we’d have
to carry to breathe would also be our vehicle fuel, and it would combust with the help of the methane
atmosphere. It would also mean we’d be breathing a highly, highly flammable gas. Yikes.

[–]tsondie21 [score hidden] 3 hours ago
I was of the understanding that the energy needs of our current rockets mean that we are using liquid
oxygen along with rocket fuel as the atmosphere doesn’t have enough oxygen to support the combustion
requirements. Are you saying that on Titan, there would be enough atmospheric methane (or maybe so
little thrust required) as to not require any in-rocket fuel other than oxygen?

[–]elakdawallaEmily Lakdawalla – The Planetary Society[F] [score hidden] 34 minutes ago
Well, I’m not an engineer, so keep that in mind when I say: yes, that’s what I’m saying. If we have
the technology to get humans to Titan, then I’m sure we could take advantage of the 5% methane
atmosphere as a reducer to burn oxygen. We could make the oxygen from Titan’s crust, which is mostly
water ice.

[–]KubrickIsMyCopilot [score hidden] 3 hours ago
They are the most challenging potential habitats for humans, despite how much attention they get
scientifically. Titan’s atmosphere and hydrosphere are a weather hazard that you would have to deal
with constantly, and we don’t know what kind of weird chemistry can cause problems with human-made
technology. Plus it’s colder than colder.
And Europa’s bathed in radiation on the surface you don’t want to deal with, so you got to drill into
the ice even if just to make a habitat, But even then, challenge or trade or transportation with
anywhere else will be expensive because of all the radiation. All you got for you is ice and maybe a
little bit of organic stuff spewed up from below. Callisto is by far the best choice to live around
Jupiter. Very little radiation, either from Jupiter or the Sun or cosmically, because it’s protected
by the Jovian field instead of bombarded by it.

IAMA 022615 NL PSe PS A4 A5 Q2 ConstellationCubesatsIAMA 022615 NL PSf PS A4 A5 Q2 ConstellationCubesats

http://www.reddit.com/r/space/comments/2x53ml/we_are_the_space_policy_and_advocacy_group_at_the/cox0d9w?context=3

[–]Universu 3 points 4 hours ago
Why not deploy a constellation of cubesats by the hundredths instead of a single satellite in future
planetary exploration?

[–]BillAdkinsBill Adkins – The Planetary Society[F] [score hidden] 3 hours ago
Good question. Cubesats definitely have a role in planetary exploration exploration, since you can
deploy many and make multiple measurements simultaneously. They’re also relatively cheap. I think
cubesats have come a long way in the last 10-15 years and scientists and engineers are thinking of
novel applications for cubesats. I think cubesats have a very bright future. However, because of
physics, many missions require a large aperture (eg camera, telescope, antenna, etc.) that simply
cannot be done with a cubesat. The sweetspot will be to ahve cubesats working in tandem with larger
spacecraft.

[–]jasonrdavis[F] [score hidden] 3 hours ago
CubeSat fleets are certainly a growing area. Planet Labs’ Flock 1 comes to mind
(https://www.planet.com/flock1/). I think a fleet of interplanetary CubeSats is an interesting idea
that has a lot of potential.
But one thing important to note when discussing the future of CubeSats is that while we’re getting
good at flying CubeSat missions in Earth orbit, we still haven’t applied the technology elsewhere.
And it’s a little harder than you might think.
Take transmission capability, for instance. LightSail’s little radio transmits at about one watt —
that’s on the order of a cell phone. We’ll be able to pick that up at small ground stations in
California and Georgia without (we hope) much of a problem. Now take the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
Its X-band radio transmits at 100 watts, and we still need NASA’s (expensive) Deep Space Network to
pick the signal.
That’s why I’m excited to see projects like Lunar Flashlight and NEA Scout (mentioned above) get off
the ground — they are helping to roll the ball forward, and that’s also what we’re trying to do with
LightSail.

IAMA 022615 NL PSg PS A6 Q3 BudgetIAMA 022615 NL PSh PS A6 Q3 Budget

http://www.reddit.com/r/space/comments/2x53ml/we_are_the_space_policy_and_advocacy_group_at_the/cox0qg0?context=3

[–]Universu 3 points 4 hours ago
Could you compare planetary science funding for NASA in relation to ESA Roscosmos, JAXA ISRO and are
there missions most ideal for collaboration in today’s situation?

[–]CaseyDreierCasey Dreier – The Planetary Society[F,S] [score hidden] an hour ago
Generally, it’s much larger than all of those space agencies, and you can tell just by the number of
missions that NASA engages in compared to that of ESA/JAXA/ISRO/etc.
It’s actually quite difficult to do an apples-to-apples comparison of planetary science budgets
between NASA and other space agencies. ESA’s model is to pay for the bulk of the mission but have its
member countries’ space agencies chip in to pay for the rest. NASA’s model is completely different.
But it’s even difficult to compare funding year-to-year within NASA. This is basically due to changes
in internal accounting practices. For example, in 2014, NASA started paying for the Department of
Energy’s Plutonium-238/RTG infrastructure to the tune of about $50 million per year. In 2013,
Planetary got $1.28 billion. In 2014, Planetary ended up with $1.35 billion. That looks like an
increase of $70 million. But $50 million of that extra money isn’t paying for missions, it’s paying
for infrastructure previously supported by the DOE. So the real difference in $20 million. Multiply
that change by 20, and you begin to see the problem of comparing budgets.
Our Planetary Science Funding Chart attempts to do this over the past 10 years. We detail major
differences, but even then, we ignore many of the smaller ones because they’re very hard to track.
Since we only have access to public data, we don’t know exactly how much money every program gets
year to year, and NASA will often change how much detail it provides in its public budget.
A good example of this is the Orion crew capsule. NASA’s public budget request for 2016 call for
1.0858 billion dollars for Orion. This number is followed by eight pages of explanatory language
about the project, including contractors and potential risks. But there is no further breakdown of
that number that I know about.
The same budget requests $1.361 billion for planetary science, followed by fifty-three pages of
explanatory language, and breakdowns of spending on every major project, down to the costs of running
individuals missions, scientific research grants (most of them), and management costs.
And even if you get all the data, NASA often changes how they bookkeep a lot of funding in their
accounts. This makes it hard to know exactly where funding goes over the years. This is not a
coincidence (I should note that this happens for every federal agency, ever—this is not just NASA).
My colleague Jason Callahan has actually made a heroic effort to track planetary science funding (and
other science funding) in NASA over its 50-year history in a consistent way. You can check out his
series of posts about the rise and fall (and rise and fall) of planetary funding, called the
Competition for Dollars.

IAMA 022615 NL PSz2k A7 Q6 Shuttle To CCP

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[–]Universu 2 points 10 hours ago
With Endeavor, Discovery and Atlantis being replaced by Orion, Dragon and CST, what will be the next
generation interstellar probes that can overtake the Voyagers?

[–]JasonCallahanJason Callahan – The Planetary Society[F] [score hidden] 3 hours ago
It’s difficult to compare the space shuttles to capsules, since the capabilities are so different.
The two types of craft are designed for very different missions. Dragon currently carries cargo to
the International Space Station like the shuttles once did, but it’s a much smaller vehicle. CST-100
(and a newer version of Dragon) is being developed to carry crew to ISS, but is probably closer to
the Soyuz capsule than the shuttle. Both CST-100 and the Dragon crew capsule will have far more
capability than Soyuz, though. Orion will carry fewer astronauts than the shuttles did, but will be
able to take them beyond low Earth orbit, which was the limit for all shuttle missions.
NASA has never launched an interstellar probe (unless you count space telescopes that peer beyond our
solar system without leaving it). Voyager 1 and 2 have (arguably) left our solar system and are the
first spacecraft to have done so, but they have not reached another star’s system and won’t for a
very, very long time. Pioneer 10 and 11 are also headed out of our solar system, but neither
spacecraft is still transmitting data. The New Horizons craft set to reach Pluto this summer will fly
past the dwarf planet (I still can’t get used to saying that) and may eventually leave the solar
system as well, I think.

(https://twitter.com/exploreplanets/status/570671509183832064)
We’re still taking questions about @NASA and space exploration: http://bit.ly/1LE3ltB

Planetary peeps: this would be a good opportunity to get thoughtful answers to FAQs you get from
friends and family.
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Starting in 10 minutes: reddit AMA with @CaseyDreier @Bill_Adkins http://bit.ly/1Ft1Xb7

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@reddit_AMA

IAMA 022615 NL PSa NL A1 Q1 Book

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[–]Universu 2 points 5 hours ago
What is your favorite book?

[–]Nicole_Lapin[F,S] 2 points 5 hours ago
RICH BITCH – haha! And Anna Karenina has always been my favorite book – in fact, a line from Anna
Karenina is the origin of the name of my production company! And the book had a special meaning for
me because it was the place where I first wrote down my first long term goal-sheet. Like i wrote it
in the back of the book because I was so digi (like digital) that I only had a blackberry, iPhone,
iPad, so I just went to the back of the book and wrote down my goals for the very first time.

IAMA 022615 NL PSb NL A2 Q2 Book

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[–]Universu 1 point 5 hours ago
What music do you listen to while writing?

[–]Nicole_Lapin[F,S] 2 points 5 hours ago
Rihanna. Or Katy Perry. Like, girl power music!

Join @NicoleLapin for her AMA live now:
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Starting a @reddit_AMA!!! Join in!
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#Photo&AeroSpace

IAMA 022015 TK JHb TK A1 Q2 Book

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[–]Universu[??] 1 point 2 hours ago
What is your favorite book?

[–]Thomas_Knoll[F,S] 3 points 2 hours ago
To be honest, I don’t read any Photoshop book. Is this a book in general?
My favorite book is “Surely you’re joking, Mr. Feynman!” by Ralph Leighton and Richard Feynman.

[–]Universu[??] 1 point an hour ago
Yes:) a book in general, I guess Lemon Cream Tea is quite good just like Photoshop:)

Want to talk to one of the creators of Photoshop? Join our #RedditAMA: http://bit.ly/1DFh4Q6
#Photoshop25

IAMA 022015 TK JHi JH Q1 ACUITY

http://www.reddit.com/r/space/comments/2wg2ly/i_am_jeff_hoffman_mit_professor_of_aerospace/coqy3ve?context=3

[–]PatientOne1117 6 points 7 hours ago
Dr Hoffman is it true that landing on Mars is a huge challenge because we only have solved landing on
Earth and the moon? Earth gives us thick atmosphere to help descent and the moon gives low gravity.
Mars gives neither.

[–]JeffHoffman[F,S] 13 points 6 hours ago
This is a good introduction into the many reasons why “Mars is hard”. The heating phase of Earth
reentry takes place at around 250,000 feet (~80 km). Mars atmospheric pressure at the surface is
about like Earth pressure at 100,000 feet, so the reentry heating for Mars entry has to be dealt with
by heat shields, just like for Earth. On the Moon, there is no atmosphere, so all braking has to be
propulsive, using rockets. Luckily, as you point out, the Moon’s gravity is only 1/6 the Earth’s, so
this can be done without too huge a rocket engine. On the Earth, once you have slowed down, you can
land with a parachute or with wings (e.g. Shuttle). The atmosphere on Mars is too thin for this, so
you need more propulsive braking, possibly followed by airbags for a small payload.
A serious problem is that Mars is far away, and getting there takes a long time, so astronauts are
exposed to a lot of radiation. This is one of the most serious problems.
Another problem is the cost of getting anything to the surface of Mars. To land one ton on the
surface of Mars, you need to put between ten and fifteen tons of propellant in Earth orbit. This is
why learning to use local Martian resources could make a huge difference in reducing cost.
I am currently working on an experiment called MOXIE, which will go to Mars on the Mars2020 mission.
For the first time, it will demonstrate the production of oxygen using Martian resources
(electrolyzing CO2 in the Mars atmosphere to make oxygen).
I think we could go to Mars right now using brute force techniques like we did with Apollo, but we
don’t have an Apollo budget. Therefore, NASA is trying to support the development of technologies
that will reduce the cost and risk of exploring Mars, such as the MOXIE experiment I just mentioned.

[–]Universu[??] 1 point 12 minutes ago
May MOXIE pave the way for the fuel of Raptor or BE4 on Mars:) Would you name Mars2020 “Acuity”?

Jeff Hoffman’s @reddit_AMA is live! Ask him anything: http://ow.ly/JkJ4n @reddit @MIT @NASA #SPACE